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By the mid-19th century, overpopulation, poverty and the potato famine of the 1840s led to the tragic Highland Clearances. People were forced off the land and shipped or tricked into emigrating to North America, Australia and New Zealand. Those who remained were moved to small holdings known as crofts. Rents were extortionate and life for the crofters was extremely precarious. Common grazing ground was confiscated for sheep or deer. In the 1880s, the crofters rebelled and won a considerable measure of security.
In the mid-20th century, a major program to harness the Highlands' abundant water resources for hydro-electric power opened up the region and greatly improved the standard of living. The discovery of oil and gas in the North Sea in the 1970s brought prosperity to Aberdeen and the surrounding area, and to the Shetland Islands. However, most of the oil revenue was siphoned off to England. This, along with takeovers of Scots companies by English ones, fuelled increasing nationalist sentiment in Scotland.
Various industries were set up in the Highlands but few lasted. During the 1990s, Inverness in particular grew rapidly as people flocked to the peaceful, unpolluted Highlands in search of a better way of life. From 1979 to 1997, the Scots were ruled by a Conservative British government for which the majority of them hadn't voted and nationalist feelings grew stronger. A referendum in 1997 on the creation of a Scottish Parliament received overwhelming support, and the first meeting of the new Scottish Parliament was held in 1999, signalling a new era of optimism and national pride.
As history has shown, the people of the Highlands and Islands are fiercely proud and, perhaps more so than their Lowland kin, have tenaciously held on to their heritage. As well as bagpipes and kilts (the 1746 Act banning the playing of bagpipes and wearing of kilts was repealed in 1782), the Scots are well known for their national dish - haggis. Usually served with tatties and neeps (mashed potatoes and turnips, with a generous dollop of butter and a good sprinkling of black pepper), haggis comprises chopped lungs, heart and liver mixed with oatmeal and boiled in a sheep's stomach. Accompanied by Scotland's national drink, whisky, it can taste surprisingly good! Other culinary delights include local steak and venison, the world-famous salmon (there is a big difference between farmed salmon and the more expensive wild version) and trout, and many excellent cheeses (the best coming from the islands, particularly Arran, Bute, Mull and Orkney). Scotland is also blessed with a thriving beer industry, with both mass-produced and real ales being brewed.
Historically, with the notable exception of literature, the Scottish have been under-represented in the worlds of arts and classical music. Perhaps the need for creative expression took different, less elitist paths in the ceilidh, folk music and dance, and the Gaelic tradition of oral poetry and folk stories. However, Scotland's literary heritage is so rich that most parts of the country have a piece of writing that captures its spirit. This is particularly so in the Highlands and Islands, which offers a wealth of subject matters. Sir Walter Scott's prodigious output, including his Highland tales, did much to romanticise Scotland and its historical figures. Collections of ballads and poems by the popular national bard Robert Burns are also widely available.
Robert Burns (25 January 1759 - 21 July 1796) (also known as Rabbie Burns, Scotland's favourite son, the Ploughman Poet, the Bard of Ayrshire and in Scotland as simply The Bard) was a Scottish poet and a lyricist. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a "light" Scots dialect, accessible to an audience beyond Scotland. He also wrote in standard English, and in these pieces, his political or civil commentary is often at its most blunt.